Selection of papers

Luijk, M.P.C.M., Beijers, R., van Rosmalen, L. (2020) Slaapproblemen bij jonge kinderen, Een pleidooi voor een breder spectrum aan interventies. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2020;164:D4449 

Beijers, R., Dähn, D., Shalev, I., Belsky, J., de Weerth, C. (2020) Biological embedding of maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: The potential role of cortisol and telomere length (Biological Psychology, Nov 14;150:107809. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.107809)

Beijers, R., Hartmans, S., Shalev, I., Hastings, W., Mattern, B., de Weerth, C., Belsky, J. (2020) Testing Three Hypotheses About Effects of Sensitive-Insensitive Parenting on Telomeres. Developmental Psychology, 56(2):237-250. doi: 10.1037/dev0000879.

Evans, B. E., van der Ende, J., Greaves-Lord, K., Huizink, A. C., Beijers, R., de Weerth, C. (2020) Urbanicity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, and behavioral and emotional problems in children: A path analysis. BMC Psychology, 8(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s40359-019-0364-2.

Gartstein, M.A., Erickson, N.L., Cooijmans, K.H.M., Hancock, G.R., Zijlmans, M.A.C., & de Weerth, C. (2020) Is prenatal maternal distress context-dependent? Comparing United States (US) and the Netherlands. Journal of Affective Disorders, 260, 710-715. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.09.048.


McEwen LM, O’Donnell KJ, McGill MG, Edgar RD, Jones MJ, MacIsaac JL, Lin DTS, Ramadori K, Morin A, Gladish N, Garg E, Unternaehrer E, Pokhvisneva I, Karnani N, Kee MZL, Klengel T, Adler NE, Barr RG, Letourneau N, Giesbrecht GF, Reynolds JN, Czamara D, Armstrong JM, Essex MJ, de Weerth C, Beijers R, Tollenaar MS, Bradley B, Jovanovic T, Ressler KJ, Steiner M, Entringer S, Wadhwa PD, Buss C, Bush NR, Binder EB, Boyce WT, Meaney MJ, Horvath S, Kobor MS. (2019) The PedBE clock accurately estimates DNA methylation age in pediatric buccal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., Oct 14. pii: 201820843. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1820843116.

Clancy, T.A., Jordan, B., de Weerth, C., Muscara, F. Early Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development of Infants and Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 2019 Sep 10. doi: 10.1007/s10880-019-09651-1.

Browne, P., Bolte, A.C., Claassen, E., de Weerth, C. (2019) Probiotics in Pregnancy: Protocol of a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial for Pregnant Women With Depression and Anxiety (PIP pilot trial). Trials, 20(1), 440. doi: 10.1186/s13063-019-3389-1.

Hechler, C.H., Borewicz, K., Beijers, R., Saccenti, E., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., Smidt, H., de Weerth, C. (2019) Association between psychosocial stress and faecal microbiota in pregnant women. Scientific Reports, 9(1):4463. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40434-8.

Brett, B.E. & de Weerth, C. (2019) The microbiota-gut-brain axis: A promising avenue to foster healthy developmental outcomes. Developmental Psychobiology, 00, 1–11. doi: 10.1002/dev.21824.

Hechler, C., Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2019) Prenatal Predictors of Postnatal Quality of Caregiving Behaviour in Mothers and Fathers. Parenting: Science and Practice, 19, 101-119.


Bos, P.A., Hechler, C.H., Beijers, R., Esposito, G., Kuzawa, C.W., de Weerth, C. (2018) Prenatal and postnatal cortisol and testosterone are related to parental caregiving quality in fathers, but not in mothers Psychoneuroendocrinology, 97:94-103. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.07.013.

Beijers, R., Cassidy, J., Lustermans, H. & de Weerth, C. (2018) Parent-Infant Room-sharing during the First Months of Life: Longitudinal Links with Behavior during Middle Childhood. Child Development, Sep 20. doi: 10.1111/cdev.13146.

Zeevenhooven, J., Browne, P.D., L’Hoir, M.P., de Weerth, C., Benninga, M.A. (2018) Infant colic: mechanisms and management. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 15(8):479-496. doi: 10.1038/s41575-018-0008-7.

Hechler, C.H., Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2018) Are cortisol concentrations in human breast milk associated with infant crying? Developmental Psychobiology, 60(6):639-650. doi: 10.1002/dev.21761.

De Weerth, C. (2018) Prenatal Stress and the Development of Psychopathology: Lifestyle Behaviors as a Fundamental Part of the Puzzle. Development and Psychopathology, 30(3):1129-1144. doi: 10.1017/S0954579418000494.


De Weerth, C. (2017). Do Bacteria Shape our Development? Crosstalk between Intestinal Microbiota and HPA Axis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 83:458-471.

Harris, V., Asad, A., Fuentes, S., Korpela, K., Kazi, M., Tate, J., Parashar, U., Wiersinga, W.J., Giaquinto, C., de Weerth, C., de Vos, W.M. Rotavirus Vaccine Response Correlates with the Infant Gut Microbiota Composition in Pakistan. Gut Microbes, 9(2):93-101. doi: 10.1080/19490976.2017.1376162.

McGauran, M., Franich-Ray, C., Beijers, R., Janssen, I., de Weerth, C., Jordan, B., Cheung, M. (2017). Long-term alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children undergoing cardiac surgery in the first 6 months of life. Stress, 20(5), 505-512.

Zijlmans, M.A.C., Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2017). Maternal Prenatal Anxiety is Associated with Children’s Health: A Longitudinal Study. Stress, 20(5), 495-504.

Browne, P. D., van den Berg, E., de Weerth, C. (2017). Impact of maternal prenatal psychosocial stress and maternal obesity on infant microbiota. In P. D. Browne, E. Claassen and M. D. Cabana (Eds.) Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Cooijmans, K.H.M., Beijers, R., Rovers, A.C., de Weerth, C. (2017). Effectiveness of Skin-to-Skin Contact Versus Care-As-Usual in Mothers and Their Full-Term Infants: Study Protocol for a Parallel-Group Randomized Controlled Trial. BMC Pediatrics, 17(1):154.

Korpela K, Zijlmans MA, Kuitunen M, Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Salonen A, de Weerth C, de Vos WM. (2017) Childhood BMI in relation to microbiota in infancy and lifetime antibiotic use. Microbiome. Mar 3;5(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s40168-017-0245-y.

Simons SS, Cillessen AH, de Weerth C. (2017). Associations between circadian and stress response cortisol in children. Stress. 20(1):52-58. doi: 10.1080/10253890.2016.1276165.

Harris, V.C., Armah, G., Fuentes, S., Korpela, K.E., Parashar, U., Victor, J.C.,  Tate, J., de Weerth, C., Giaquinto, C., Wiersinga, W.J., Lewis, K.D.C., de Vos, W.M. (2017) The infant gut microbiome correlates significantly with rotavirus vaccine response in rural Ghana. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 215(1):34-41. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw518.

Simons, S.S.H., Cillessen, A.H.N., de Weerth, C. (2017) Cortisol stress responses and children’s behavioral functioning at school. Developmental Psychobiology, 59(2):217-224. doi: 10.1002/dev.21484.

Beijers R, Riksen-Walraven M, Sebesta K, de Weerth C (2017) Differential associations between behavioral and cortisol responses to a stressor in securely versus insecurely attached infants. Behavioural Brain Research, 325(Pt B):147-155. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2016.10.008.


Beijers, R., Cillessen, L.C.G. & Zijlmans, M.A.C. (2016) An experimental study on mother-infant skin-to-skin contact in full-terms. Infant Behavior and Development, 43:58-65.

Albers, E.M., Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., Sweep, F.C.G.J., de Weerth, C. (2016) Cortisol Levels of Infants in Center Care Across the First Year of Life: Links with Quality of Care and Infant Temperament. Stress, 19(1):8-17.


Simons, S.S.H, Beijers, R., Cillessen, A.H.N., & de Weerth, C. (2015). Development of the Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in Early Childhood in the light of Stress in Early Life. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62:292-300.

Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.C., Beijers, R., van Doornen, L.J.P., & de Weerth, C. (2015). Explicit and implicit caregiving interests in expectant fathers: do endogenous and exogenous oxytocin and vasopressin matter?  Infant Behavior and Development, 41:26-37.

Zijlmans, M.A.C., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2015) Associations between Maternal Prenatal Cortisol Concentrations and Child Outcomes: A Systematic Review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 53:1-24.

Zijlmans, M.A.C., Korpela, K., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Vos, W.M., de Weerth, C. (2015) Maternal Prenatal Stress is Associated with Inflammatory Signatures in the Intestinal Microbiota of the Newborn. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 53:233-45.

Hechler, C.H., Beijers, R., de Weerth, C. (2015) Young adults’ reactions to infant crying. Infant Behavior & Development, 38:41-8.

Sung, J., Beijers, R., Gartstein, M.A., de Weerth, C. & Putnam, S.P. (2015) Exploring temperamental differences in infants from the USA and the Netherlands. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12: 15-28.

Pieters, S., Burk, W.J., Van der Vorst, H., Dahl, R.E., Wiers, R.W., Engels, R.C. (2015) Prospective Relationships Between Sleep Problems and Substance Use, Internalizing and Externalizing Problems. J Youth Adolesc, 44(2):379-88.


Beijers, R., Buitelaar, J.K., de Weerth, C. (2014) Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: Beyond the HPA axis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(10):943-56.

de Veld, D., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2014) Does the arrival index predict physiological stress reactivity in children? Stress, 17(5):383-8.

de Veld, D., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2014) Acute Psychosocial Stress and 10-year-old Children’s Memory. Stress, 17(4):305-13.

Strien, T. van, Machteld A. Ouwens, M.A., Engel, C., de Weerth, C. (2014) Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating. Appetite, 79:124-33.

Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.C., van Doornen, L.J.P., de Weerth, C. (2014) Young Adults’ Reactions to Infant Crying. Infant Behavior & Development, 37(1):33-43.

de Veld, D., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2014). The relation between gaze aversion and cortisol reactivity in middle childhood. Hormones and Behavior, 65:173-8.

Pieters, S., Burk, W.J., Van der Vorst, H., Engels, R.C., Wiers, R.W. (2014). Impulsive and reflective processes related to alcohol use in young adolescents. Front Psychiatry. 5:56.


de Weerth, C., Fuentes S, de Vos, W.M. (2013) Crying in infants: On the possible role of intestinal microbiota in the development of colic. Gut Microbes, 4:416-421.

Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A., de Weerth, C. (2013). Cortisol regulation in 12-month-old infants: associations with early history of breastfeeding and co-sleeping. Stress, 16(3):267-77.

Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A., Putnam, S., de Jong M., de Weerth, C. (2013). Early Non-parental Care and Toddler Behaviour Problems: Links with Temperamental Negative Affectivity and Inhibitory Control. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28:714-722.

de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K., Beijers, R. (2013) Infant cortisol and behavioral habituation to weekly maternal separations: Links with maternal prenatal cortisol and psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38:2863-2874.

de Weerth, C., Fuentes, S., Puylaert, Ph., de Vos, W.M. (2013). Intestinal Microbiota of Infants with Colic: Development and Specific Signatures. Pediatrics, 131(2):e550-8.

de Weerth, C., Zijlmans, M.A.C., Mack, S., Beijers, R. (2013). Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-olds. Stress, 16(1):65-72.

Frankenhuis, W.E., de Weerth, C. (2013) Does early-life exposure to stress shape, or impair, cognition? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22:407-412.

Strien, T. van, Roelofs, K., de Weerth, C. (2013). Cortisol reactivity and distress-induced emotional eating. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(5):677-84.

Zijlmans, M.A.C., Beijers, R., Mack, S., Pruessner, J.C., de Weerth, C. (2013). Cortisol responses to social evaluation in 10 to 15-year-old boys and girls. Stress, 16(4):393-401.


de Graag, J.A., Cox, R.F.A., Hasselman, F., Jansen, J., de Weerth, C. (2012). Functioning within a Relationship: Mother-Infant Synchrony and Infant Sleep. Infant Behavior and Development, 35(2):252-63.

de Veld, D., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2012). The Relation Between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Physiological Stress Reactivity in Middle Childhood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(8):1309-19.

Tollenaar, M.S., Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., Weerth C. de (2012). Solitary sleeping in young infants is associated with heightened cortisol reactivity to a bathing session but not to a vaccination. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(2):167-77.


Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A, de Weerth, C (2011). Attachment and infant night waking: a longitudinal study from birth through the first year of life. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 32(9):635-43.

Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2011). Non-parental care and infant health: Do number of hours and number of concurrent arrangements matter? Early Human Development, 87(1):9-15.

Peters, E., Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A., Cillessen, A.H.N., Weerth, C. de (2011). Peer Rejection and HPA Activity in Middle Childhood: Friendship Makes a Difference. Child Development, 82(6):1906-20.

Tollenaar, M.S., Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2011). Maternal prenatal stress and cortisol reactivity to stressors in human infants. Stress, 14(1):53-65.

Pieters, S., Van Der Vorst, H., Burk, W.J., Schoenmakers, T.M., Van Den Wildenberg, E., Smeets, H.J., Lambrichs, E., Field, M., Engels, R.C., Wiers, R.W. (2011). The effect of the OPRM1 and DRD4 polymorphisms on the relation between attentional bias and alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 1(4):591-9.


Albers, E.M., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., Weerth, C. de (2010) Developmental Stimulation in Child Care Centers Contributes to Young Infants’ Cognitive Development. Infant Behavior and Development, 33(4):401-8.

Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, M., de Weerth, C. (2010). Maternal prenatal anxiety and stress predict infant illnesses and health complaints. Pediatrics, 126(2), e401-9.

Jansen, J., Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2010). Cortisol reactivity in young infants. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 329-38.

Jansen, J., Beijers, R., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2010). Does maternal caregiving behavior modulate the cortisol response to an acute stressor in 5-week-old human infants? Stress, 13(6):491-7.

Tollenaar, M.S., Beijers, R., Jansen, J., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., de Weerth, C. (2010). Cortisol in the First Year of Life: Normative Values and Intra-Individual Variability. Early Human Development, 86,13-6.

Smeekens, S., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., van Bakel, H.J.A., de Weerth, C. (2010). Five-year-olds’ cortisol reactions to an attachment story completion task. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35:858-65.

Pieters, S., Van Der Vorst, H., Burk, W.J., Wiers, R.W., Engels, R.C. (2010). Puberty-dependent sleep regulation and alcohol use in early adolescents. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 34(9):1512-8.

Pieters, S., van der Vorst, H., Engels, R.C., Wiers, R.W. (2010). Implicit and explicit cognitions related to alcohol use in children. Addict Behav. 35(5):471-8.


Albers, E.M., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., Sweep, F.C.G.J., Weerth, C. de (2008). Maternal Behavior Predicts Infant Cortisol Recovery from a Mild Everyday Stressor. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 97-103.

Jansen, J., Weerth, C. de, Riksen-Walraven, J.M. (2008) Breastfeeding and the Mother-Infant Relationship – A Review. Developmental Review, 28, 503-521.


Albers, E.M., Riksen-Walraven, J.M., Weerth, C. de (2007) Infants’ interactions with professional caregivers at 3 and 6 months of age: A longitudinal study. Infant Behavior and Development, 30, 631-640.

de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K. (2007) Childbirth complications affect young infants’ behavior. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 379-388.

de Weerth, C., Gispen-de Wied, C.C., Jansen, L.M.C. Buitelaar, J.K. (2007) Cardiovascular and cortisol responses to a psychological stressor during pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 86, 1181-1192.

de Weerth, C., Jansen, J., Vos, M.H., Maitimu, I., Lentjes, E.G.W.M. (2007) A new device for collecting saliva for cortisol determination. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 1144-1148.

Gutteling, B.M., de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K. (2007) Prenatal stress and mixed-handedness. Pediatric Research, 62, 586-590.


Gutteling, B.M., de Weerth, C., Zandbelt, N., Mulder, E.J.H., Visser, G.H.A., Buitelaar, J.K. (2006) Does prenatal maternal stress adversely affect the child’s learning and memory at age six? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 789-98.


de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) Cortisol awakening response in pregnant women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 902-907.

de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy – a review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 295-312.

de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K., Mulder, E.J.H. (2005) Prenatal programming of behavior, physiology and cognition. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 207-208.

Gutteling, B.M., de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) Prenatal stress and children’s cortisol reaction to the first day of school. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 541-549.

Gutteling, B.M., de Weerth, C., Willemsen-Swinkels, S.H.N., Huizink, A.C., Mulder, E.J.H., Visser, G.H.A., Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) The effects of prenatal stress on temperament and problem behavior of 27-month-old toddlers. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 41-51.


Gutteling, B.M., de Weerth, C., Buitelaar, J.K. (2004) Maternal prenatal stress and 4-6 year old children’s endocrinological reaction to a vaccination. Stress, 7, 257-260.


de Weerth, C., van Hees, Y., Buitelaar, J.K. (2003) Prenatal maternal cortisol levels and infant behavior during the first 5 months. Early Human Development, 74, 139-51.

de Weerth, C., Zijl, R.H., Buitelaar, J.K. (2003) Development of cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy. Early Human Development, 73, 39-52.


de Weerth, C. & van Geert, P. (2002) A longitudinal study of basal cortisol in infants: Intra-individual variability, circadian rhythm and developmental trends. Infant Behavior and Development, 25, 375-398.

de Weerth, C. & van Geert, P. (2002) Changing patterns of infant behavior and mother-infant interaction: Intra- and interindividual variability. Infant Behavior and Development, 24, 347-371.